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By: Joseph St. Geme, MD

  • Chair, Department of Pediatrics, Professor of Pediatrics and Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
  • Physician-in-Chief, Leonard and Madlyn Abramson Endowed Chair in Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

https://www.chop.edu/doctors/st-geme-joseph-w

In between are students who speak their home (or heritage) language much better than English symptoms your dog is sick order norpace amex, as well Source as others who have partially lost their heritage language in the process of learning English (Tse medicine university buy norpace with a mastercard, 2001) symptoms graves disease safe 150 mg norpace. Commonly treatment sinus infection buy online norpace, a student may speak a language satisfactorily, but be challenged by reading or writing it. As you might suspect, and research confirms, a fully fluent bilingual student is in a better position to express concepts or ideas in more than one way, and to be aware of doing so (Jimenez, Garcia, & Pearson, 1995; Francis, 2006). Since some of the patterns differ from those typical of modern classrooms, they can create misunderstandings between teachers and students (Cazden, 2001; Rogers, et al. Chitchat, or talk that simply affirms a personal tie between people, is considered immature or intrusive (Minami, 2002). In a classroom, this habit can make it easier for a child to learn not to interrupt others, but it can also make the child seem unfriendly. In classrooms, however, teachers often expect a lot of eye contact (as in "I want all eyes on me! A student who habitually expects a wait time longer than one second may seem hesitant, and not be given many chances to speak. A student who expects a negative wait time, on the other hand, may seem overeager or even rude. In most non-Anglo cultures, questions are intended to gain information, and it is assumed that a person asking the question truly does not have the information requested (Rogoff, 2003). If the student is not aware of this purpose, he or she may become confused, or think that the teacher is surprisingly ignorant. Classroom life can then become explicitly competitive, and the competitive atmosphere can interfere with cultivating supportive relationships among students or between students and the teacher (Cohen, 2004). For students who give priority to these relationships, competition can seem confusing at best and threatening at worst. What the student views as cooperative sharing may be seen by the teacher as laziness, freeloading, or even cheating. Achievement tests are often used as measures of teaching effectiveness within a school setting and as a method to make schools that receive tax dollars (such as public schools, charter schools, and private schools that receive vouchers) accountable to the government for their performance. Schools that showed significant gaps in these levels of performance were mandated to work toward narrowing these gaps. Educators criticized the policy for focusing too much on testing as the only indication of student performance. Target goals were considered unrealistic and set by the federal government rather than individual states. This law is state driven and focuses on expanding educational opportunities and improving student outcomes, including in the areas of high school graduation, drop-out rates, and college attendance. A learning problem is not considered a learning disability if it stems from physical, sensory, or motor handicaps, or from generalized intellectual impairment. Dyslexia is one of the most commonly diagnosed disabilities and involves having difficulty in the area of reading. Recent studies have identified a number of genes that are linked to developing dyslexia (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2016). There are different types of dysgraphia, including phonological dysgraphia when the person cannot sound out words and write them phonetically. Orthographic dysgraphia is demonstrated by those individuals who can spell regularly spelled words, but not irregularly spelled ones. All three terms refer to students with average intelligence who exhibit poor academic performance in mathematics. Additionally, problems with multi-digit skills, including number system knowledge, were also exhibited. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is also associated with the development of more severe symptoms of the disorder (Thakur et al. Three major laws were passed that guaranteed the rights of persons with disabilities, and of children and students with disabilities in particular. It also specifically requires accommodations to be made in public facilities such as with buses, restrooms, and telephones. This provision of the law applies both to evaluations made by teachers and to school-wide or "high-stakes" testing programs. In practice this requirement has meant including students in regular classrooms and school activities as much as possible, though often not totally. It is important to consider that children can be misdiagnosed and that once a child has received a diagnostic label, the child, teachers, and family members may tend to interpret actions of the child through that label. This self-fulfilling prophecy or tendency to act in such a way as to make what you predict will happen, will come true. It should be recognized that the distinction between abnormal and normal behavior is not always clear; some abnormal behavior in children is fairly common. They are constantly doing, planning, playing, getting together with friends, and achieving. This is a very active time, and a time when they are gaining a sense of how they measure up when compared with peers. Self-Understanding Self-concept refers to beliefs about general personal identity (Seiffert, 2011). This can be attributed to greater experience in comparing their own performance with that of others, and to greater cognitive flexibility. Children can have individual assessments of how well they perform a variety of activities and also develop an overall global self-assessment. Large discrepancies between self-efficacy and ability can create motivational problems for the individual (Seifert, 2011). It is possible to have either too much or too little self-efficacy, and according to Bandura (1997) the optimum level seems to be either at, or slightly above, true ability. The man can only pay $1,000, but the pharmacist wants $2,000, and refuses to sell it to him for less, or to let him pay later. The child believes that if the consequence for an action is punishment, then the action was wrong. In the second stage, the child bases his or her thinking on self-interest and reward. For example, they might say the man should not break into the pharmacy because the pharmacist might find him and beat him. Or they might say that the man should break in and steal the drug and his wife will give him a big 194 kiss. Right or wrong, both decisions were based on what would physically happen to the man as a result of the act. He called this most superficial understanding of right and wrong preconventional morality. Adults can also fall into these stages, particularly when they are under pressure. Level Two-Conventional Morality: Those tested who based their answers on what other people would think of the man as a result of his act, were placed in Level Two. For instance, they might say he should break into the store, and then everyone would think he was a good husband, or he should not because it is against the law. At stage four, the person acknowledges the importance of social norms or laws and wants to be a good member of the group or society. For example, the man should break into the store because, even if it is against the law, the wife needs the drug and her life is more important than the consequences the man might face for breaking the law. Alternatively, the man should not violate the principle of the right of property because this rule is essential for social order. It is based on a concern for others; for society as a whole, or for an ethical standard rather than a legal standard. This level is called postconventional moral development because it goes beyond convention or what other people think to a higher, universal ethical principle of conduct that may or may not be reflected in the law. The reasons for the laws, like justice, equality, and dignity, are used to evaluate decisions and interpret laws. In the sixth stage, individually determined universal ethical principles are weighed to make moral decisions. Second, it has been argued that the stage model is particularly appropriate for Western, rather than nonWestern, samples in which allegiance to social norms, such as respect for authority, may be particularly important (Haidt, 2001). Gilligan (1982) has argued that, because of differences in their socialization, males tend to value principles of justice and rights, whereas females value caring for and helping others. However, peer interactions at this age often involve more parallel play rather than intentional social interactions (Pettit, Clawson, Dodge, & Bates, 1996). Friendships provide the opportunity for learning social skills, such as how to communicate with others and how to negotiate differences.

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A comprehensive national strategy thus combining prevention chapter 9 medications that affect coagulation order generic norpace pills, community-based health promotion and access to symptoms inner ear infection cheap norpace 150 mg amex treatment can substantially decrease the burden associated with cardiovascular diseases conventional medicine norpace 150mg on-line, including stroke 9 medications that can cause heartburn generic norpace 100 mg amex. Disability consequent to neurological disorders can be decreased by rehabilitation programmes and policies. For example, building ramps and other facilities to improve access by disabled people falls beyond the purview of the health sector but is nevertheless very important for comprehensive management of people with disability. Moreover, country health plans frequently do not cover neurological disorders at the same level as other illnesses, creating significant economic difficulties for patients and their families. In all but the least developed countries of the world, poor people are much more likely than the wealthy to develop neurological disorders, and everywhere they are more likely to die as a result. Thus poverty and neurological disorders tend to reinforce each other; this vicious cycle is frequently exacerbated by gender inequalities. Not only are resources inadequately allocated for neurological services, there is also inequity in their distribution across countries and populations. This is particularly true for people living in low and middle income countries as well as for poor population groups in high income countries. All the following recommendations need to be implemented across a wide range of sectors and disciplines if they are to achieve success. They are not a universal blueprint, however, and will have to be adapted to local conditions and capacities. The actions recommended can be beneficial directly - by decreasing the mortality, morbidity and disability caused by neurological disorders - and indirectly by improving the functioning and quality of life of patients and their families. In certain low income and middle income countries with limited human and financial resources, it may be difficult for governments to apply some of these recommendations on their own. In these circumstances, it is suggested that countries work with international agencies, nongovernmental organizations or other partners to put their plans into practice. Gain commitment from decision-makers Much of the success of public health efforts in countries ultimately depends upon the degree of political commitment they receive. Support from decision-makers is not only necessary to ensure proper funding and effective legislation and policies, but also to give prevention efforts increased legitimacy and a higher profile in the public consciousness. Public health professionals have an important contribution to make to the process of gaining political support, by providing decision-makers with solid information on the prevalence, consequences and burden of neurological disorders, and by carefully documenting the proven and promising interventions that can lead to their prevention or management. Information on population needs must be synthesized and disseminated in a way that encourages commitment from decisionmakers. Communication methods such as media features and the identification and engagement of community leaders can be used to help build alliances between different stakeholders. Increase public and professional awareness Public and professional awareness of public health aspects of neurological disorders needs to be raised through the launch of global and local campaigns and initiatives that target health professionals, general practitioners and primary care physicians, specialists in public health, neurologists, health planners, health economists, the media and the general public. Another route of sensitization is the development of educational programmes on the public health aspects of neurology (taking into account local practices and traditions) and including them in the teaching and training curricula of all institutions where neurology is taught. Self-help groups, patient information programmes and basic educational and training interventions for caregivers need to be encouraged and facilitated. Patients, their families and carers should be represented and fully involved in the development and implementation of policies and services for people with neurological disorders. The ultimate goal of all such efforts should be to prevent the isolation of patients with neurological disorders and their families and to facilitate their social integration. The dignity of people with neurological disorders needs to be preserved and their quality of life improved. Development of social and health policies for minimizing stigma must take into consideration such key issues as access to care and financing health care, as well as basic human rights. Driving privileges for people with controlled epilepsy indicates practical needs for policy to examine not just personal and public safety, but also how stigma, culture, liability and ethics interact. Legislation represents an important means of dealing with these problems and challenges. Governments can reinforce the efforts with laws that protect people with brain disorders and their families from abusive practices and prevent discrimination in education, employment, housing and other opportunities. Legislation can help, but ample evidence exists to show that alone it is not enough. For example, efforts to alleviate the stigma of epilepsy need to be focused on helping individuals acknowledge and adjust to life with treatable disease in a large number of cases. Information, education and communication and social marketing campaigns need to enhance compassion and reduce blame. In the case of other diseases, for example leprosy, the control programme can be made effective by use of a simple message that leprosy can be cured with medicines. Strengthen neurological care within the existing health systems the most promising approach for reducing the burden of neurological disorders in developing countries is a comprehensive system of primary health care: primary care services supported by secondary and tertiary care facilities, physicians and specialists. Primary care is the point of entry for the vast majority of people seeking medical care - indeed, for many people it is their sole access to medicine. Moreover, because primary care teams work in the community, they are well placed to recognize factors such as stigma, family problems and cultural factors that affect treatment for neurological disorders. Thus, primary care is the logical setting in which neurological disorders need to be dealt with. For example, effective management of headache disorders can be provided in primary care for all but a very small minority of patients, as the common headache disorders require no special investigation and they can be diagnosed and managed with skills generally available to health-care professionals working in primary care settings. A careful analysis is required of what is and what is not possible for the treatment and care of neurological disorders at different levels of care. It is thus very important to establish a referral system for management of severe cases and patients requiring access to diagnostic and technological expertise. What is needed is a continuing, seamless care approach to handle the long-term nature of neurological disorders and the call for ongoing care. Incorporate rehabilitation into the key strategies Rehabilitation complements the other key strategies, promotion, prevention and treatment. While prevention involves targeting risk factors of disease and treatment is dealing with health conditions, rehabilitation targets human functioning. Though rooted in the health sector, rehabilitation is also a relevant strategy that brings together other sectors such as education, labour and social affairs. There is a wide range of rehabilitation interventions, programmes and services that have been shown to be effective in contributing to optimal functioning of people with neurological conditions. Rehabilitation services need to be made available to all people with disabilities, and this includes people with disabilities attributable to neurological disorders. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation is considered to be beneficial in early recovery of stroke and traumatic brain injury patients. Although options for treatment of multiple sclerosis are relatively limited, sufferers can gain significant improvements in quality of life with neurorehabilitation. Since community-based rehabilitation programmes are a low-cost way to coordinate medical guidance and community resources in the rehabilitation of disabled people, they need to be encouraged. The programmes should be linked to and supported by institutional and hospital-based care, where appropriate, thus creating a comprehensive rehabilitation service. Develop national capacity and international collaboration the international implications of dealing with neurological disorders in low and middle income countries are similar to those for a variety of other health concerns. Building capacity in these countries to reduce the burden of neurological disorders will require international contributions of expertise and resources. Nongovernmental organizations have an important role to play in this regard, and they should be encouraged to give greater support to their initiatives. Partnerships between health policymakers, health-care providers and people affected by neurological disorders and their advocacy groups may be the best vehicle for determining, and bringing about, the changes that people with neurological disorders need. Establish links to other sectors the risk factors and strategies for prevention for many of the neurological disorders lie beyond the health sector, necessitating the participation of other sectors such as education, transport, welfare, housing and legislation; these sectors need to be fully involved in improving the programmes and services for people with neurological disorders. Partnerships are advantageous in enhancing the effectiveness of interventions, increasing the resources available through joint actions and avoiding a duplication of efforts. Sometimes different sectors may have different and even conflicting priorities; in such situations, the health sector needs the capacity to provide leadership and informed reasoning and to adapt to the agendas and priorities of other sectors. Road traffic injury prevention and management strategies include the design of vehicles, the design of road networks and roads, urban and rural planning, the introduction and enforcement of road safety legislation and the care and treatment of crash survivors. These are some of the relevant areas for interventions to prevent neurological consequences of road traffic injuries, which are divided among many different sectors and groups. Define priorities for research the research agenda for developing countries, including operational research, needs to be developed to gain better understanding of the problem so that appropriate responses can be developed and evaluated. Specific areas for research and development could include conducting population-based epidemiological studies in developing countries where insufficient data limit evidence-based planning. It is also necessary to develop and evaluate simple models of care for management of neurological disorders by existing community-based health-care providers.

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Otherwise medication 3 checks purchase norpace 100 mg without a prescription, ulcers must not have been active 97 Guide for Aviation Medical Examiners within the past 3 months symptoms irritable bowel syndrome purchase 150mg norpace otc. This medication can be associated with vision and psychiatric side effects of aeromedical concern - specifically decreased night vision/night blindness and depression symptoms 7 days after iui cheap norpace 150mg. Disorders such as sterility and menstrual irregularity are not usually of importance in qualification for medical certification medicine nobel prize 2015 norpace 150mg amex. Metabolic/underlying condition requiring treatment/surveillance/monitoring Procedures (3 or more for kidney stones within the last 5 years) Renal failure or obstruction (acute or chronic). Current or recommended treatment After a single stone event - if follow up imaging verifies no further stone(s) present, annotate this in Block 60. Notes: If it has been 5 or more years since the airman (If these medications are used, the has had any treatment for this condition, with no airman should not fly until 24 hours history of metastatic disease and no reoccurrence, post treatment and asymptomatic. Applicants for firstor second- class must provide this information annually; applicants for third-class must provide the information with each required exam. If surgery has been performed, the airman is off pain medication(s), has made a full recovery, and has been released by the surgeon. Medical documentation must be submitted for any condition in order to support an issuance of a medical certificate. Disqualifying Condition: Scar tissue that involves the loss of function, which may interfere with the safe performance of airman duties. Examination Techniques A careful examination of the Iymphatic system may reveal underlying systemic disorders of clinical importance. Note if there are any motion restrictions of the involved extremity Submit a current status report and all pertinent medical reports. The basic neurological examination consists of an examination of the 12 cranial nerves, motor strength, superficial reflexes, deep tendon reflexes, sensation, coordination, mental status, and includes the Babinski reflex and Romberg sign. Chronic conditions may be incompatible with safety in aircraft operation because of long-term unpredictability, severe neurologic deficit, or psychological impairment. Potential neurologic deficits include weakness, loss of sensation, ataxia, visual deficit, or mental impairment. Recurrent symptomatology may interfere with flight performance through mechanisms such as seizure, headaches, vertigo, visual disturbances, or confusion. Behave in unusual ways such as smacking your lips, touching your clothes, or doing any other unusual things without intending to? Previous medication information: If you do not know the date or calendar year, enter your age when medication was stopped. As used in this section, "psychosis" refers to a mental disorder in which: (i) the individual has manifested delusions, hallucinations, grossly bizarre or disorganized behavior, or other commonly accepted symptoms of this condition; or (ii) the individual may reasonably be expected to manifest delusions, hallucinations, grossly bizarre or disorganized behavior, or other commonly accepted symptoms of this condition. Department of Transportation; or (3) Misuse of a substance that the Federal Air Surgeon, based on case history and appropriate, qualified medical judgment relating to the substance involved, finds(i) Makes the person unable to safely perform the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman certificate applied for or held; or (ii) May reasonably be expected, for the maximum duration of the airman medical certificate applied for or held, to make the person unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. If any psychotropic drugs are or have been used, followup questions are appropriate. Psychiatric information can be derived from the individual items in medical history (Item 18). If there was a hospital admission for any emotionally related problem, it will be necessary to obtain the entire record. Any fees involved in obtaining medical tests and/or documentation to support a Special Consideration are the responsibility of the employee/applicant. A typed statement, in your own words, describing your mental health history, antidepressant use, and any other treatment. Review the overall symptom and treatment history, with a timeline of evaluations and treatments (including start and stop dates). Include any drug testing results, therapist follow up reports, social worker reports, etc. Guide for Aviation Medical Examiners the following is a table that lists the most common conditions of aeromedical significance, and course of action that should be taken by the examiner as defined by the protocol and disposition in the table. Personality Disorders All Submit all pertinent medical information and clinical status report. Driving infractions and previous failures to follow aviation regulations are critical examples of these acts. Applicants for firstor second-class must provide this information annually; applicants for third-class must provide the information with each required exam. If an applicant is unable to pass either the conversational voice test or the pure tone audiometric test, then an audiometric speech discrimination test should be administered. If the applicant is unable to hear a normal conversational voice then "fail" should be marked and one of the following tests may be administered. If the applicant fails the pure tone audiometric test and has not been tested by conversational voice, that test may be administered. Upon failing both conversational voice and pure tone audiometric test, an audiometric speech discrimination test should be administered (usually by an otologist or audiologist). It is critical that any audiometer be periodically calibrated to ensure its continued accuracy. Some use the headphone on one ear for radio communication and the hearing aid in the other for cockpit communications. Distant Vision (Updated 06/28/2017) Third Class 20/40 20/40 20/20 20/40 20/40 No requirement I. Guide for Aviation Medical Examiners Equipment: 1. If the applicant wears corrective lenses, only the corrected acuity needs to be checked and recorded. In amblyopia ex anopsia, the visual acuity of one eye is decreased without presence of organic eye disease, usually because of strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. If the applicant needs glasses to meet visual acuity standards, the findings are recorded, and the certificate appropriately limited. Color Vision Examination Equipment and Techniques before requesting the Specialized Operational Medical Tests in Section D below. Inform the applicant that if he/she takes and fails any component of the Specialized Operational Medical Tests in Section D, then he/she will not be permitted to take any of the remaining listed office-based color vision tests in Examination Techniques, Item 52. That pathway is no longer an option to the airman, and no new result will be considered. The color vision screening tests above (Section A) are not to be used for the purpose of removing color vision limits/restrictions from medical certificates of airmen who have failed the Specialized Operational Medical Tests below (Section D). The operational tests are determined by the class of medical certificate requested. The applicant should be instructed to keep the left eye focused on the fixation point. The result should be recorded on a worksheet as the number of inches from the fixation point at which the applicant first identifies the white target on each radial. This is the least acceptable alternative since this tests for peripheral vision and only grossly for field size and visual defects. Acceptable substitutes: any commercially available visual acuities and heterophoria testing devices. No other organic, functional, or structural disease, defect, or limitation that the Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history and appropriate, qualified medical judgment relating to the condition involved, finds (1). May reasonably be expected, for the maximum duration of the airman medical certificate applied for or held, to make the person unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. An applicant should not be denied or deferred first-, second-, or third-class certification unless subsequent recumbent blood pressure readings exceed those contained in this Guide. Aerospace Medical Disposition If there is bradycardia, tachycardia, or arrhythmia, further evaluation is warranted and deferral may be indicated (see Item 36. Examination Techniques Any standard laboratory procedures are acceptable for these tests. If the glycosuria has been determined not to be due to carbohydrate intolerance, the Examiner may issue the certificate. The Examiner may request additional urinary tests when they are indicated by history or examination. If the form is complete and accurate, the Examiner should add final comments, make qualification decision statements, and certify the examination. Item 60 provides the Examiner an opportunity to report observations and/or findings that are not asked for on the application form. If there are no significant medical history items or abnormal physical findings, the Examiner should indicate this by checking the appropriate block.

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If these do not work medicine 100 years ago discount 150 mg norpace free shipping, producers may use synthetic substances on the list of allowed synthetic substances medicine bow national forest discount norpace 150mg on-line. The regulations generally require all seeds and planting stock to treatment 001 - b 150mg norpace be organically grown symptoms yeast infection men buy norpace 150mg with visa. Producers who believe a seed or planting stock is commercially unavailable should consult their certifying agent to determine what documentation the agent will require for the producer to prove they diligently sought an organic source and it is truly commercially unavailable. To market livestock products as organic, they must be under "continuous organic management from the last third of gestation or hatching" through slaughter (7 C. Farmers must organically manage dairy cattle for at least a year prior to marketing milk as organic. For future calves to be organic, the cow must remain under continuous organic management. This prevents producers from gaming the system by managing cows as organic only during the last third of gestation, and otherwise caring for them conventionally. If need be, synthetic and non-synthetic substances that are listed on the national list of permitted © 2013, All Rights Reserved 137 Louisiana Direct Farm Business Guide substances may be used as supplements or additives (7 C. Preventing illness and caring for sick animal is a point of concern for some organic producers (and consumers). Many modern medicines are synthetic, which is contrary to the principles of organics, but allowing animals to suffer in the name of avoiding synthetic chemicals is also contrary to ethical concerns. As much as possible, producers must care for animals in a manner that prevents disease by doing things such as selecting animals appropriate for the environment and the site, providing feed that satisfies nutritional needs, and establishing housing, pasture conditions, and sanitation practices that minimize the spread of disease and reduce stress. However, livestock can be given vaccines to prevent disease and other "veterinary biologics" (products of biological origin) when needed. When these are insufficient, farmers may use synthetic medications that are listed on the National List of allowed substances (7 C. This is a careful balancing act, as farmers cannot market meat as organic if the animal received any antibiotics. Dairy products, however, can be organic if the farmer manages the cow organically for a year after she received antibiotics. If a facility handles organic and nonorganic agricultural products, only the portion that handles the organic product needs certification (7 C. However, the facility must implement practices to prevent the comingling of organic and non-organic agricultural products (7 C. For a handling facility to receive certification, it must have an organic handling plan (7 C. For direct farm businesses seeking to both grow and process organic products, it is critical to work carefully with the certifying agent to design a compliant processing method to maintain the "organic" status of the final product. Switching to organic takes time and requires considerable labor investments ­ you do not want to make a mistake that costs you money, or worse yet, prevents certification. Talk to other producers in your area to learn about your local market and what grows well in your area. Attend conferences, workshops, and training sessions on growing and marketing organic Develop an Organic System Plan, a record keeping system, and a business and marketing plan. Make sure the certifier has experience certifying your type of production, and then obtain their information on what you need to do. Agency (agent): A fiduciary relationship created by express or implied contract or by law, in which one party (the agent) may act on behalf of another party (the principal) and bind that other party by words or actions. Agricultural Enterprise: Agriculturally-related activities performed by any person(s) for a common business purpose. This includes all such activities whether performed in one or more establishments or by one or more corporate or other organizational units. Agronomic Rate: A specific rate of application that provides the precise amount of water and nutrient loading, which selected grasses/crops require without having any excess water or nutrient percolate beyond the root zone. Amortization: the paying off of debt in regular installments over time; the deduction of capital expenses over a specific period of time. Articles of Incorporation: A document that dictates the management of the affairs of a corporation, including the purpose and duration of the corporation and the number and classes of shares to be issued by the corporation. Assumed Name: (also known as "doing business as" or "d/b/a"): the name under which a business operates or by which it is commonly known. Assumption of the Risk: A legal concept in negligence (tort) law wherein an individual knows of or is otherwise aware of a risk posed by a particular activity and nonetheless engages in the activity. Assumption of the risk most commonly arises in the context of employer-employee relationships and agri-tourism. It also may serve as an introduction to potential investors if outside financing is required. Candling (egg): the use of a bright light source behind the egg to show details of the embryo through the shell. Checkoff: A mandatory fee for all producers of a particular commodity that is used to fund commodity-specific research or marketing. Commercially Available: Under the National Organic Program, the ability to obtain a production input in an appropriate form, quality, or quantity to fulfill an essential function in a system of organic production or handling as determined by the certifying agent in the course of reviewing the organic plan. Commodity: A tangible item that may be bought or sold; something produced for commerce. Commodity Agriculture: the agricultural production of commodities with the primary objective of farming being to produce as much food/fiber as possible for the least cost. Common Law: the body of laws and rules that courts create as they issue decisions. Contract: A legally enforceable agreement between two or more persons involving an offer, acceptance, and consideration. Cooperative: A user-owned and controlled business that generates benefits for its users and distributes these benefits to each member based on the amount of usage. Copyright: (1) the right to copy a work, specifically an original work of authorship (including a literary, dramatic or other work) fixed in any tangible meaning of expression, giving the holder exclusive right to reproduce, distribute, perform, or otherwise control the work. Corporation: a separate legal entity in which the owners (shareholders) are not personally responsible for the liability of business. S-corporations elect to pass corporate income, losses, deductions and credit through to their shareholders for federal tax purposes to avoid double taxation. C-corporations are separate taxpaying entities that conduct business, realize net income or loss, pay taxes, and distribute profits to shareholders. Cow-share Program: A program in which consumers sign a contract to purchase a "share" in a cow or herd and pay the farmer to care for and milk the cows. The consumer then receives the milk from "their" cow without technically "purchasing" the milk. De Minimis: something so small that it would be inconvenient and unreasonable to keep an account of; the impact is insubstantial. Double Taxation: the government taxes the corporation on its profits and the owners/shareholders also pay individual income tax on profits distributed as dividends from the same corporation. Excise Tax: A tax levied on the purchase of a specific good as opposed to a tax that generally applies to the sale of all goods. Feasibility Study: a process used to analyze an existing business opportunity or new venture. The questions on a feasibility checklist concentrate on areas one must seriously consider to determine if an idea represents a real business opportunity. Good Faith: Acting honestly, fairly, and with a lawful purpose without malice or any intent to defraud or take unfair advantage. Whether a party has acted in good faith is often an issue that the court or the jury has to decide in a lawsuit. Grandfather Clause: A portion of a statute that provides that the law is not applicable in certain circumstances due to preexisting facts. Gross receipts: All considerations received by the seller, except trades in personal property. Hazardous Positions: In the employment context, hazardous positions include, but are not limited to, operating large farm machinery, working in enclosed spaces with dangerous animals (studs and new mothers), working from a ladder or scaffold more than 20 feet high, working inside certain spaces such as manure pits, and handling hazardous chemicals. Health Claim: a health claim describes a relationship between the food (or component of it) and the reduction of the risk of a disease or health-related condition. Hold Harmless: A provision in an agreement under which one or both parties agree not to hold the other party responsible for any loss, damage, or legal liability.

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