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  • Lawrence J. Henderson Professor of Pathology and Health Sciences and Technology, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Staff Pathologist, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts


Adults with asplenia have specific vaccination recommendations because of their increased risk for infection by encapsulated bacteria spa hair treatment buy generic co-amoxiclav canada. Anatomical or functional asplenia includes congenital or acquired asplenia symptoms of generic co-amoxiclav 625 mg visa, splenic dysfunction medicine 230 buy co-amoxiclav without a prescription, sickle cell disease and other hemoglobinopathies 4 medications walgreens co-amoxiclav 625mg low cost, and splenectomy. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Appendix H Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards H Figure 1. Recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older by age group, United States, 2018 this figure should be reviewed with the accompanying footnotes. Vaccine Influenza1 this schedule was updated for Caring for Our Children online version in 2018. Recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older by medical condition and other indications, United States, 2018 this figure should be reviewed with the accompanying footnotes. This figure and the footnotes describe indications for which vaccines, if not previously administered, should be administered unless noted otherwise. Recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older, United States, 2018 1. Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination providing sexually transmitted disease treatment, drug Contraindications are conditions that increase chances of a serious adverse reaction in vaccine recipients and the vaccine should not be administered when a contraindication is present. Precautions should be reviewed for potential risks and benefits for vaccine recipients. Immunosuppressive steroid dose is considered to be daily receipt of 20 mg or more prednisone or equivalent for 2 or more weeks. Vaccination should be deferred for at least 1 month after discontinuation of immunosuppressive steroid therapy. Vaccine should be deferred for the appropriate interval if replacement immune globulin products are being administered. Measles-containing vaccine may be administered on the same day as tuberculin skin testing, or should be postponed for at least 4 weeks after vaccination. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Developmental, psychosocial, and chronic disease issues for children and adolescents may require frequent counseling and treatment visits separate from preventive care visits. Additional visits also may become necessary if circumstances suggest variations from normal. No part of this statement may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior written permission from the American Academy of Pediatrics except for one copy for personal use. If a child comes under care for the first time at any point on the schedule, or if any items are not accomplished at the suggested age, the schedule should be brought up-to-date at the earliest possible time. A prenatal visit is recommended for parents who are at high risk, for first-time parents, and for those who request a conference. The prenatal visit should include anticipatory guidance, pertinent medical history, and a discussion of benefits of breastfeeding and planned method of feeding, per "The Prenatal Visit" pediatrics. Newborns should have an evaluation after birth, and breastfeeding should be encouraged (and instruction and support should be offered). Newborns should have an evaluation within 3 to 5 days of birth and within 48 to 72 hours after discharge from the hospital to include evaluation for feeding and jaundice. Breastfeeding newborns should receive formal breastfeeding evaluation, and their mothers should receive encouragement and instruction, as recommended in "Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk" pediatrics. Newborns discharged less than 48 hours after delivery must be examined within 48 hours of discharge, per "Hospital Stay for Healthy Term Newborns" pediatrics. Screen, per "Expert Committee Recommendations Regarding the Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Summary Report" pediatrics. Blood pressure measurement in infants and children with specific risk conditions should be performed at visits before age 3 years. A visual acuity screen is recommended at ages 4 and 5 years, as well as in cooperative 3-year-olds. Instrument-based screening may be used to assess risk at ages 12 and 24 months, in addition to the well visits at 3 through 5 years of age. See "Visual System Assessment in Infants, Children, and Young Adults by Pediatricians" pediatrics. Confirm initial screen was completed, verify results, and follow up, as appropriate. Newborns should be screened, per "Year 2007 Position Statement: Principles and Guidelines for Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs" pediatrics. Screen with audiometry including 6,000 and 8,000 Hz high frequencies once between 11 and 14 years, once between 15 and 17 years, and once between 18 and 21 years. See "The Sensitivity of Adolescent Hearing Screens Significantly Improves by Adding High Frequencies". See "Identifying Infants and Young Children With Developmental Disorders in the Medical Home: An Algorithm for Developmental Surveillance and Screening" pediatrics. Screening should occur per "Identification and Evaluation of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders" pediatrics. This assessment should be family centered and may include an assessment of child social-emotional health, caregiver depression, and social determinants of health. See "Promoting Optimal Development: Screening for Behavioral and Emotional Problems" pediatrics. Screening should occur per "Incorporating Recognition and Management of Perinatal and Postpartum Depression Into Pediatric Practice" pediatrics. At each visit, age-appropriate physical examination is essential, with infant totally unclothed and older children undressed and suitably draped. See "Use of Chaperones During the Physical Examination of the Pediatric Patient" pediatrics. These may be modified, depending on entry point into schedule and individual need. Confirm initial screen was accomplished, verify results, and follow up, as appropriate. Confirm initial screening was accomplished, verify results, and follow up, as appropriate. Screening for critical congenital heart disease using pulse oximetry should be performed in newborns, after 24 hours of age, before discharge from the hospital, per "Endorsement of Health and Human Services Recommendation for Pulse Oximetry Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Disease" pediatrics. For children at risk of lead exposure, see "Low Level Lead Exposure Harms Children: A Renewed Call for Primary Prevention". Perform risk assessments or screenings as appropriate, based on universal screening requirements for patients with Medicaid or in high prevalence areas. See "Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents". Indications for pelvic examinations prior to age 21 are noted in "Gynecologic Examination for Adolescents in the Pediatric Office Setting" pediatrics. See "Maintaining and Improving the Oral Health of Young Children" pediatrics. Indications for fluoride use are noted in "Fluoride Use in Caries Prevention in the Primary Care Setting" pediatrics. If primary water source is deficient in fluoride, consider oral fluoride supplementation. See "Fluoride Use in Caries Prevention in the Primary Care Setting" pediatrics. A subheading has been added for fluoride supplementation, with a recommendation from the 6-month through 12-month and 18-month through 16-year visits. For further information, see the Bright Futures Guidelines, 4th Edition, Evidence and Rationale chapter brightfutures.

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The girls (rag pickers) used the puppet-show to treatment 0f gout 625mg co-amoxiclav otc demonstrate the mixed messages they gave to symptoms for pregnancy order co-amoxiclav 625 mg fast delivery the boys in the community medications available in mexico co-amoxiclav 625mg line. They showed they were not interested in the boys but in reality wanted to useless id symptoms order cheap co-amoxiclav on line and did meet the boys. Make a list of what made the communication good or use the list from the earlier activity on listening. Listens with full attention; Encouraging words or sounds; Answers questions; Body language is supportive; and Gives feedback in a nice way. Divide the group into groups of three to four and ask each group to think of a problem they may have and whom they would approach for help and advice. If the group cannot think of any ideas, give them some problems that you know are common with the children. If the group can write, make a list of the persons on one side and whether they are good and interested listeners on the other. Before rating, there should be an internal discussion within the groups about their opinion on each of these figures with reference to the "Good Listening List. With younger children stars can be used to indicate who the good listeners are and who are not so good. A gold star may refer to a very good listener, a silver one to an okay one and a bronze or black one to a bad one. The facilitator must be ready if children want to consult him/her later after this exercise. Tips for the facilitator Explain to the children that waiting is not always an indication that the person does not want to listen or is trying to ignore them. If we place our bodies in an assertive position, it makes it easier to speak assertively. Time Required Key Points Status is important in teaching assertiveness because it makes the children understand power and about being dominant or submissive. Each pair will show different positions of power in a short sketch (only 1 minute). This activity can be varied for older children by having Child A play the person with low status who has qualities of the higher status and Child B the other character. For example, if Child A has been the servant in the first role play, s/he now becomes the clever servant. Ask the persons participating in the sketches how they felt as the person in power and later as the person who did not have power. She is very confident with her knowledge and has practiced how to say "no" to sex without condoms. She tells her new husband that they should wear a condom because he has just come back from work in the big city after three months and she is not sure he has not had sex with someone else. She has raised her status, Activity: Status and Power; Partner: Salaam Baalak Trust, Delhi but her husband puts her down and calls her names. They are back now to the conventional man in high status and woman in a low status position. So she asks him why he gets so upset and raises her status to being equal to him because she is asking questions. Now she tells him that she married him because he had a job and was confident like her. Experience from the field A lot of issues of gender were brought out which revealed that boys had stereotypes for girls, such as staying at home after marriage and not working. A story was adapted: the mother (who is a sex worker) told her daughter to leave school and come with her to the village because her "aadmi" (boyfriend) vwas troubling her. The girl refused to go, and the mother threatened to commit suicide if the girl did not accompany her. When the girl explained that she was doing well in school, the mother told her the truth-the boyfriend had his eyes on the girl and she was afraid for her. The girls at the night shelter enacted different roles quite vividly: the policeman swinging the stick, the mothers taking blessings before going for soliciting, the older children bullying the younger ones. They said the people who have power in the community were "those who have money and those who lead the community like gundas (rogues), mandal (association representatives), gharwali (brothel keeper) and sect leaders. Then do a role play, and show how conventional status and power can change to benefit both. The facilitator can select a few situations from those suggested by the children to present if there is not enough time to enact all of them. What is more, an outsider changes the rules rather than someone from inside the group. Although the outsider calls out the changes, it is up to the children in the lines to obey or not obey that call. The linking of learning to life happens in that the children should realize, through this game, that many people feel powerless because they do not make the right decisions. But actually in many situations they do have the power to change provided they all work together. The chased starts running or walking around these three lines and the chaser runs after him or her. The chased or the chaser cannot go through the outstretched arms but has to go around each line. Experience from the field A clock was drawn on the floor with markings of 3, 6, 9 and 12 on it. The children who are standing first or in the center have to stand in place while the others move. Would it help if only one of them wanted to help the chased or would all have to join to do so? This is very common with street children, those living in the red light area or in families with a lot of conflict. For this activity, a careful review and linking to life discussion are very important. The facilitator can ask them to observe the role play and then make a list of the assertive behavior. Brainstorm with them what they do when they do not want to do something they are supposed to do without confronting the person involved. Explain that when you act like this, you do not make your own decisions, you wait for someone to make it for you 3. The facilitator repeats the same questions: "Can I go to the movie (or any other statement or question)? Next ask them to think of a time when they or their friend had to do something they did not like and their reaction was not passive. Explain that in such behavior, you do not think or care what the other person feels. Inform the children that those who showed aggressive behavior should stand in one corner, and those who showed passive behavior should stand in the opposite corner. In each of the groups, ask some children to explain why they behaved in the way they did or if they had some personal reason for their behavior. Ask them how they would express, in action, the sentence that the facilitator used or any other sentence of their own. Point out that people will perceive the meaning of what they say based on what they do or by their body language. While the children are in the groups, the facilitator expresses the sentence in an assertive way. Ask the children to help you to complete a list of what assertive behavior may look like. It is quite possible that the children do not know this because they have not thought of assertive behavior as an alternative.

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For example treatment zinc poisoning trusted 625mg co-amoxiclav, "Make sure that the mothers in your practice are aware of the benefits of breastfeeding medicine ball exercises 625 mg co-amoxiclav with amex, but do not be judgmental top medicine buy 625mg co-amoxiclav fast delivery. The summary should review the important facts and major concepts of the presentation medicine 3605 buy co-amoxiclav 625mg line. What are the most important things that you would like your audience to remember a year from now? Revisiting the learning objectives that you presented at the start of the session is a powerful way of summarizing. If you have not already acknowledged your collaborators and contributors, now is a good time to do so. Properly used, audiovisual support adds interest to a presentation, helps clarify the content, and enhances learning. Rehearsing As actors and public speakers know very well, rehearsal improves performance. Rehearse by giving your presentation out loud, going through your slides and other visuals and timing the presentation. The less experienced you are at lecturing, the more time you will need to spend rehearsing. Rehearsal is an opportunity to fine tune the presentation, to decide when you will pause, when you will break from the slides, and when you will engage and interact with the audience. Checking the site and equipment Preparation extends right up to the moment of presentation. Even if there is a podium, you may choose to stand beside rather than behind, it, or you may want to ignore the podium and stand elsewhere or move about-but not so much as to appear nervous or to be distracting. Where is the clock, and will you be able to see it from where you will be standing? If you will be using a podium microphone, can you be heard when you turn to look at the screen? A dark room invites the audience to doze off, so use the maximum lighting that will permit your projected images to be seen well. If you are speaking in a new environment, time spent familiarizing yourself with the room and equipment is well worth it. Finally, always have notes or a printout of your slides in case the unimaginable happens and the bulb blows, the projector dies, or the computer crashes. One of the surest ways to stimulate excitement in your audience is to be excited yourself. Animation and reaching out to the audience will keep the learners awake and focused. Your body language and facial expression should reflect confidence and authority without being condescending. You want to give the impression that you are in charge, while at the same time, you are one with your audience. Talk to your audience, not to the blackboard or the slides, and never talk to the podium or the floor. Moving about the room forces the audience to follow you with their eyes and keeps their attention focused on you. In very formal lectures or "platform presentations," leaving the podium may be inappropriate, but in more relaxed settings it can be very effective. Do not, however, be in perpetual motion; do not pace; and avoid other repetitive actions, which can make your audience uneasy. Being talked to by a pair of eyes peeking above a screen is like facing a masked intruder. During the interactive part of a presentation, the learners are mentally interacting and demonstrating this by some physical response-usually verbal or a show of hands. Many speakers assume that a lecture means no audience participation until the question and answer period at the end, but if you think of your task as giving 145 Turner, Palazzi, Ward a presentation rather than delivering a lecture, you may feel less constrained. You can ask questions of your audience, so long as this is done in a careful and non-threatening manner. In a lecture format, even with a small audience, it can be distressing for a learner to be asked a question and not know the answer, so generally it is best to not single out one learner. There are numerous ways to get audience participation while avoiding embarrassment. Asking for a show of hands will stimulate a sense of involvement, but even a show of hands can be intimidating. This situation can be avoided by framing the question in a neutral manner or selecting a question that deals more with opinion, personal experience, or expectations, making sure that the question is politically correct and non-threatening. For example, instead of the above question, you might ask, "How many of you feel that it is important to know the relative iron concentration in breast milk and in different formulas? Still another approach is to ask a rhetorical question, anticipating no overt response from the audience. Does the primary care physician need to be an expert on the management of asthma, and if so, how close are you to that goal? Give the audience something to think about, give them a moment to think and then draw them back to what you are saying. When you look at one person, everyone nearby will feel that you are looking at him. But do not look at the same person repeatedly or for too long; it can be intimidating. A good joke makes a great start for almost any lecture, but humor can be used during the lecture as well. Of course, the joke should be in good taste and should relate in some way to the topic of the lecture. Props and gimmicks can be very helpful but are never a substitute for information or skill building. Speech and language When we talk about "speaking clearly," we really are talking about two different things-language and speech. Speech makes language intelligible and conveys feeling about the words and their meaning. Repeat this exercise with the sentence, "If you do this, your patients will survive. When you actually present your lecture, you should not be overly dramatic, but it is useful to exaggerate in practice, so as to know your capabilities. Some microphones distort the sound if you put your mouth too close, while others fade out if you are not close enough. Unfortunately, some do both, in which case you must keep a safe distance and speak loudly. Most people intuitively choose a formal or informal vocabulary based on their assessment of the audience. For example, when giving a lecture to a small group of medical students or interns, you might say something like, "You guys really need to know this. Colorful words and phrases are effective, but arcane terms (terms known only to a select few) can be "off-putting. Even basic abbreviations, known to every intern, may be nothing but a set of letters to a core medical student. Other than asking questions, what are some of the ways you could engage your audience? Relaxation It has been said that the fear of death is second only to the fear of public speaking. If you feel yourself getting nervous just thinking about giving a lecture, you could benefit from some relaxation techniques. The manifestations of nervousness are psychological (anxiety, uneasiness, and apprehension) and physical (dry mouth, tight throat, tachycardia, tremor or trembling, sweating, shortness of breath, and even tingling from hyperventilation). A bit of "stage fright" happens to almost everyone, even seasoned actors and public speakers. It is usually at its worst just before the presentation and tends to lessen after starting. Preparation, rehearsal and following the principles discussed in this chapter will help you relax and do a fine job. Breathe slowly, deeply, and evenly, holding your breath for two to three seconds at the end of each inspiration. By controlling just one of the manifestations of nervousness, you often can break the cycle. If your mouth tends to get dry at times like this, drink some water before your talk and take a glass inconspicuously to the podium with you.

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It is the treatment delivered at the prehospital stage which gives a majority of the survival benefit medicine under tongue order co-amoxiclav 625 mg line. Avoid excessive movement of the patient (body position changes) due to treatment brown recluse spider bite purchase co-amoxiclav 625 mg free shipping the risk of dysrhythmia symptoms zollinger ellison syndrome order co-amoxiclav 625mg without prescription. Traditional resuscitation methods including postural drainage and use of the Heimlich manoeuvre should be avoided medicine side effects generic 625 mg co-amoxiclav amex. Submersion in the Netherlands: Prognostic indicators and results of resuscitation. The development of inland diving venues has not only increased the accessibility of the sport but also the distribution of diving incidents. An understanding of dive emergencies and how to manage them is required by all prehospital practitioners wherever they are based. Although 60% of the body is represented by incompressible water, the gases contained within air spaces and those dissolved in the blood are subject to the laws of physics as applied to gases. For each 10 metres of descent, the absolute pressure increases by 1 atm, with the greatest differential pressure occurring between 0 and 10 metres (Figure 27. As pressure increases during descent the partial pressure of the individual component gases (oxygen and nitrogen) also increases. During ascent the reverse occurs and dissolved gas (nitrogen and oxygen) re-expands forming bubbles in the blood vessels and tissues. During a controlled, slow ascent these gases move from the tissues into the blood and are eliminated by the lungs. During an uncontrolled, fast ascent to the surface or a rapid ascent to altitude (driving over high hills, flying soon after diving), nitrogen bubbles may form at a rate that exceeds the ability of the body to eliminate them, leading to disruption at cell and organ level. Emergencies on descent Barotrauma Unbalanced pressures between the surrounding water and air-filled spaces of the face (sinuses, middle ear and dental cavities) can cause severe pain during descent (or ascent). Management Typically the symptoms resolve with aborting the dive and return to the surface. Rupture of the tympanic membrane results in vertigo, nausea, disorientation and hearing loss. Management Underwater seizures typically result in drowning, which should be managed in the standard manner. Emergencies at depth Nitrogen narcosis (rapture of the deep, Martini effect) Breathing nitrogen at increased partial pressures (usually above 4 atm absolute) may result in a state of euphoria termed nitrogen narcosis. Every 15 metres of depth is said to have the same effect as one Martini alcoholic drink on an empty stomach. Decompression sickness During uncontrolled or rapid ascents, dissolved nitrogen may be released from solution to form small bubbles in blood vessels and tissues. These bubbles can disrupt cells, act as emboli, and can cause mechanical compression and stretching of the blood vessels and nerves. Management Typically, the symptoms resolve with ascending to shallower depth; if they fail to resolve after ascent, nitrogen narcosis is not the underlying cause. Alternative aetiology should be sought and its appropriate management should be commenced. At normal low oxygen partial pressures the body inactivates these radicals rapidly. Currently, the safe oxygen partial pressure for recreational diving purposes is considered to be 1. Many divers will attribute this pain to some form of muscular trauma and therefore delay reporting it. Typically, low back pain starts within minutes to hours, followed by a combination of paraesthesia, paresis, paralysis, faecal and urinary incontinence or retention. Headaches, visual field abnormalities, mental status alteration, and personality changes can also occur. Rapid progression to respiratory failure can occur within 12 hours, which can result in death. Cardiovascular symptoms: the patient may present with tachycardia, hypotension, hypovolaemic shock or cardiovascular collapse. Skin symptoms: the skin may appear mottled with a marbled (cutis marmorata) or violet discolouration most often seen on the chest and shoulders. Venous gas emboli are common after recreational dives, but are usually filtered out by the lungs. Well-organized dives and diving clubs may supply their members with diving incident pro formas for completion following dive incidents. These documents capture data important for the treating hyperbaric team and should accompany the patient to the chamber where possible. Recompression therapy the hyperbaric chamber is used to repressurize the patient to a depth where the bubbles of nitrogen or air are made smaller and the gas redissolves into the body tissues and fluids. High concentrations of oxygen can be administered during repressurization if required. The pressure is then slowly brought back to surface atmospheric pressure allowing gases to diffuse gradually out of the lungs and body. Treatment tables govern the exact times and depths that the patient will be repressurized to in the hyperbaric chamber. However a basic understanding of pregnancy related changes in anatomy and physiology and a stepwise approach to care should enable prehospital teams to optimize outcomes for mothers and their babies. Breathing A progressive rise in respiratory rate and tidal volume occurs throughout pregnancy to compensate for increasing oxygen demands. The tidal volume increase occurs at the expense of inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes resulting in a reduced functional residual capacity and a shortened apnoeic desaturation time. As the gravid uterus enters the upper abdomen in the third trimester the lower ribs become splayed and relatively fixed, reducing the contribution of the intercostal muscles during forced respiration. There is also elevation of the diaphragm in late pregnancy due to pressure from the compressed abdominal contents and as such it is recommended that thoracostomies are performed one or two intercostal spaces higher than usual. Anatomical and physiological changes in pregnancy Airway Several anatomic changes occur during pregnancy that can impact prehospital airway management. The engorgement and friability of the respiratory tract, mucosal oedema and capillary engorgement of nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa and laryngeal tissues increase the possibility of iatrogenic trauma during airway instrumentation. Pregnancy-induced weight gain and an increase in breast size may obstruct laryngoscope blade insertion when mounted on a standard handle. There is a progressive reduction in blood pressure in the first trimester, followed by a steady increase in the third trimester to pre-pregnancy values. During the late second and third trimester the gravid uterus compresses the inferior vena cava in the supine position (aortocaval compression), leading to reduced venous return and syncope (Figure 28. This may be prevented by tilting the patient to the left on either an immobilization device or by placing padding under the right buttock. In an emergency the uterus can be manually displaced to the left with the patient supine. The bowels and omentum are displaced which can make the diagnosis of appendicitis or disseminated infection, more difficult. In advanced pregnancy assessment should be performed in the left lateral position to eliminate aortocaval compression. The management of catastrophic obstetric haemorrhage involves immediate transfer to hospital with circulation management en route. In the shocked pregnant patient the uterus should be considered as a fifth source of concealed haemorrhage along with the traditional four sites (chest, abdomen, pelvis, long bones).

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Remission from drug dependence symptoms and drug use cessation among women drug users in Puerto Rico keratin treatment order genuine co-amoxiclav line. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 68w medications order co-amoxiclav overnight, 6(4) 5 medications related to the lymphatic system discount co-amoxiclav online mastercard, 1317-1334 cold medications order co-amoxiclav from india. From surviving to thriving: Understanding reunification among African American mothers with histories of addiction. Community in Recovery: A study of social support, spirituality, and volunteerism among Gay and Lesbian members of Alcoholics Anonymous. The historical trauma response among natives and its relationship with substance abuse: A Lakota illustration. Alcohol problems in Native America: the untold story of resistance and recovery-The truth about the lie. Decline in public substance use disorder treatment centers most serious in counties with high shares of black residents. Ethnic-Specific support systems as a method for sustaining long-term addiction recovery. The Twelve Steps and dual disorders: A framework of recovery for those of us with addiction and an emotional or psychiatric illness. The effect of 12-step-based fellowship participation on abstinence among duallydiagnosed persons: A two year longitudinal study. A prospective study of the natural course of alcoholism in a Native American village. Effectiveness of dual focus mutual aid for co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders: A review and synthesis of the "Double Trouble" in Recovery evaluation. Effects of "dual focus" mutual aid on self-efficacy for recovery and quality of life. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 34(1), 1-12. Medication adherence and participation in self-help groups designed for dually-diagnosed persons. Role of self-help processes in achieving abstinence among dually diagnosed persons. Youth participation in mutual support groups: History, current knowledge, and areas of future research. Cultural interventions to treat addictions in indigenous populations: Findings from a scoping study. Recovery across the life cycle from alcohol/other drug problems: Pathways, styles and developmental stages. Recovery among Adolescents and Young Adults (Also see Recovery Schools) Becker, S. Twelve-step attendance trajectories over 7 years among adolescents entering substance use treatment in an integrated health plan. The effect of assertive continuing care on continuing care linkage, adherence, and abstinence following residential treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. The stability and impact of environmental factors on substance use and problems after adolescent 56 outpatient treatment for cannabis abuse or dependence. A retrospective look at long-term adolescent recovery: Clinicians talk to researchers. Recovering to recovery among adolescent youth: Evidence-based approaches to prevention and treatment. Approaches to substance abuse and addiction in education communities: A guide to practices that support recovery in adolescents and young adults. Long-term course of substance use disorders among patients with severe mental illness. Substance dependence and remission in schizophrenia: A comparison of schizophrenia and affective disorders. The concept of recovery as an organizing principle for integrating mental health and addiction services. Remission of substance use disorder among psychiatric inpatients with mental illness. Future directions in preventing relapse to substance abuse among clients with severe mental illnesses. Three-year outcomes of longterm patients with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders. Impact of remitted substance use disorders on the future course of bipolar I disorder: Findings from a clinical trial. Remission of psychiatric symptoms among drug misusers after drug dependence treatment. Psychiatric comorbidity, continuing care and mutual help as predictors of five-year remission from substance use disorders. Does recovery from substance use disorder matter in patients with bipolar disorder? Substance abuse relapse in a tenyear prospective follow-up of clients with mental and substance use disorders. Breaking the habit: a retrospective analysis of desistance factors among formerly problematic heroin users. Polydrug use and implications for longitudinal research: ten-year trajectories for heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine users. Transitions in and out of alcohol use disorders: Their associations with conditional changes in quality of life over a 3-year follow-up interval. Three-year changes in adult 63 risk drinking behavior in relation to the course of alcohol-use disorders. Remission of substance dependence: Differences between individuals in a general population longitudinal survey who do and do not seek help. The natural history of alcohol abuse: implications for definitions of alcohol use disorders. Comparing the dynamic course of heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine use over 10 years. A 25-year follow-up of patients admitted to methadone 65 treatment for the first time: mortality and gender differences. Prediction of long-term outcome for heroin addicts admitted to a methadone maintenance program. Survival and cessation in injecting drug users: prospective observational study of outcomes and effect of opiate substitution treatment. Probability and predictors of remission from life-time nicotine, alcohol, cannabis or cocaine dependence: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Individual and partner predictors of recovery from alcohol-use disorder over a nine-year interval: findings from a community sample of alcoholic married men. Outcomes for physicians with opioid dependence treated without agonist pharmacotherapy in Physican Health Programs. Tenyear stability of remission in private alcohol and drug outpatient treatment: non-problem users versus abstainers. Characterizing durations of heroin abstinence in the California Civil Addict Program: results from a 33year observational cohort study. Abstinence and normal drinking: An assessment of change in drinking patterns to alcoholics after treatment. Ten-years of abstinence in former opiate addicts: Medication-free non-patients compared to methadone maintenance patients. Remission from drug abuse over a 25 year period: Patterns of remission and treatment use. Long-term outcome of chronic drug use: the Amsterdam Cohort Study among drug users. A social capital approach to assisting veternas through recovery and deistance transitions in civilian life. Digital recovery management: Characterizing recovery-specific social network site participation and perceived benefit. Recovery from heroin or alcohol dependence: A qualitative account of the recovery experience in Glasgow.

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