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  • Donald N. Pritzker Professor and Chairman, Department of Pathology, Biologic Sciences Division and Pritzker School of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois


The performance of the entity is monitored on an ongoing basis for compliance with Presbyterian requirements and all applicable regulatory and accreditation standards antibiotics for dogs vs humans order genuine doximicina online. Presbyterian retains the right to does antibiotics for acne work generic doximicina 100 mg visa approve antibiotics horses order doximicina canada, suspend and terminate 2021 Universal Practitioner and Provider Manual Version B 12-6 Quality Improvement Program individual providers in situations regarding quality issues strong antibiotics for sinus infection cheap 200 mg doximicina amex. Performance by the delegate is evaluated in accordance with regulatory requirements and results are reported to the Credentialing Review Committee. Standards of Care Presbyterian has processes to ensure health care services provided to members are rendered according to acceptable standards of quality of care consistent with professionally recognized standards of medical practice. This is monitored through the credentialing, recredentialing, quality of clinical care, and peer review processes. Quality of Clinical Care Quality of Clinical Care investigates and resolves all clinical quality complaints and referrals. Investigations may include but are not limited to, obtaining medical records, provider responses and subject matter expert input. The primary source of clinical care referrals is the Presbyterian Appeals and Grievances department. The Quality department also receives direct referrals from providers, Presbyterian medical directors, Presbyterian pharmacy, Presbyterian Clinical Operations, or the Program Integrity Department. Clinical Quality of Care monitors all providers monthly for trends in the number and nature of complaints referred to the quality of care process. A medical record chart audit is performed and if it is determined to be a significant quality of clinical care issue, it is presented to the appropriate Professional Practice Evaluation Committee. Presbyterian has two professional practice evaluation committees, one for behavioral health and one for physical health. Quality of clinical care referrals are referenced as part of the credentialing and recredentialing process. Peer review activities are confidential and include review of the quality of clinical care delivered by providers within the same discipline and area of clinical practice. Information exchange between medical and behavioral providers must be member-approved and conducted in an effective, timely and confidential manner. A drug-use evaluation of psychopharmacological medications is conducted to increase appropriate use or decrease inappropriate use and to reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions. Collaborative interventions are implemented when opportunities for improvement are identified. Open Communication with Patients To ensure standards of quality of care are met, Presbyterian issues the following affirmative statement: Providers may freely communicate with patients about their treatment, regardless of benefit coverage limitations. Service Quality Concerns Service quality concerns from members and providers are tracked both individually and in aggregate to identify potential problems with quality of services. The Appeals and Grievance Department works closely with other internal departments including Provider Network Operations to investigate service-related complaints that involve providers. Continuum of Care Providing members with timely, medically necessary clinical services is optimal for quality, cost-effective healthcare. Presbyterian is dedicated to helping members meet their healthcare needs across the continuum of care through programs, services and activities that address wellness and prevention chronic condition care, acute/long-term care, catastrophic, and end of life needs. Interventions and tools are developed from evidencebased guidelines to work with members, and to create and implement plans of care that provide members with the tools needed to move toward self-management. The associated Preventive Healthcare Guidelines and Clinical Practice and Preventive Healthcare Guidelines are detailed in chapter 5. Our staff works collaboratively with members, practitioners, and other health care providers to promote a seamless delivery of healthcare services. It is essential that these differences are recognized and shared with our staff, providers and contractors when communicating and interfacing with members verbally, non-verbally and in writing. Without meaningful and effective interactions, members may not understand their healthcare benefits or be able to participate fully in the recommended course of prevention and treatment. Our objectives for serving our culturally and linguistically diverse membership include the following: · An annual assessment to understand and describe diversity among our membership. At a minimum, work plan activities include the following: · Maintaining a Cultural Competence/Sensitivity policy to provide direction for Presbyterian services and operations. Maintaining a Translation Services policy to ensure that customer information and services are available in languages other than English. Recruiting and training diverse staff and leadership that are representative of the unique demographic characteristics of New Mexico. Utilizing data along with provider-patient policies and procedures to ensure network service adequacy. Providing annual cultural competency training for Presbyterian staff, providers and contractors. Targeting cultural competency training for member service staff and contracted providers. The program is designed to assist members with multiple and complex, physical, neurological, emotional or cognitive, and behavioral healthcare needs. The intent is to identify members with moderate risk and to offer disease management services to slow or prevent the progression of chronic conditions. A care coordinator is assigned to provide complex case management or care coordination for members who meet criteria. This individualized care serves to guide members through the healthcare continuum in a coordinated, caring, cost-effective and quality-oriented manner. In addition to measuring member satisfaction, two clinical measures are identified annually to monitor the effectiveness of the complex case management program. The individualized care serves to guide members through the healthcare continuum in a coordinated, timely, caring, cost-effective and quality-oriented manner. Special Populations the identification of special populations in Presbyterian Centennial Care enables Presbyterian to facilitate timely and appropriate healthcare through effective care coordination. Presbyterian offers specialty care coordination for high needs populations to ensure the utmost support is provided. Specialty Care Coordinators and Consultants receive specialized training for the respective population supported to ensure thorough knowledge of associated needs and available resources to best assist members. Medically Fragile members receiving case management services through the University of New Mexico. Culturally Appropriate Services Presbyterian is committed to embracing the rich diversity of the people we serve and supports culturally sensitive services. These services begin with an understanding of and respect for language, ethnicity, race, age, sex and gender-based differences. It is essential that these differences are recognized and shared with our staff when communicating and interfacing with members verbally, non-verbally and in writing. At all levels of operations, Presbyterian acknowledges and promotes the importance of and respect for culture, language and the traditions associated with our diverse population and the communities in which the services are delivered. Development of work plan activities to address identified opportunities for improvement. At a minimum, work plan activities include the following: 2021 Universal Practitioner and Provider Manual Version B 12-11 Quality Improvement Program Maintaining a cultural competency and sensitivity policy to provide direction for Presbyterian services and operations. Maintaining a translation services policy to ensure that customer information and services are readily available in languages other than English. Tracking bias and discrimination issues that hinder or prevent culturally sensitive services and care in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act and other applicable federal and state laws. Conducting an annual assessment of languages and cultural background within the provider network to determine if providers meet the needs and preferences of members. Providing cultural competency educational materials and training for providers throughout the year. Assisting members in locating providers with corresponding language, cultural and gender preferences. Oversight of Delegated, Subcontracted and High-volume/Single-source Providers Presbyterian may delegate or subcontract specific administrative functions. All delegates and subcontractors must meet Presbyterian requirements as well as applicable accreditation and regulatory standards before and during delegation. Delegates are subject to appropriate oversight activities to ensure that services are compliant with regulatory, contractual and accreditation requirements. Delegated, subcontracted and high-volume or single-source provider functions are monitored at least annually to review policies, procedures, and activities to ensure that they continue to meet Presbyterian requirements as well as applicable contractual, accreditation and regulatory standards. Audit findings and applicable corrective action plans are reported to and monitored by the 2021 Universal Practitioner and Provider Manual Version B 12-12 Quality Improvement Program appropriate quality committee. Provider and hospital directories to help current and prospective members choose providers, pharmacies, and hospitals. Processes for posting and maintaining accuracy and currency of content and information are monitored.

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Kenya1997 CopingWithout Coping:What Poor PeopleSayAbout Povertyin Kenya Ten study sites were selectedacross agro-ecological zones in each of seven districts (Kaiiado bacteria legionella purchase doximicina 200 mg without a prescription,Kisumu antibiotics joint infection cheap doximicina 200 mg on-line, Makueni antibiotics for acne dosage order doximicina american express, Mombasa infection eyes discount 200mg doximicina free shipping, Nakuru, Nyeri, and Taita Taveta). Open-endedresearch techniques, including social mapping, Venn diagram and three-pile sorting, focus group discussions,interviews,gender analyses,and case studies. Country,Year, and Title Madagascar 1994 Participatory PovertyAssessment: Synthesis Report Sample Methods Four regions selected (Tulear, Antananarivo, Soavinamdriana,and Sambaveand Brickaville)to represent differentagro-ecologicalzones, levelsof income,and modes of livelihood. There were 2,582 poor households involved in focus groups or one-on-one interviews. In additon, approximately 100 interviews were conductedwith community leaders,service providers, and government officials. Structured conversational interviews, focus group interviews with locals, participant observation, and institutional appraisal. Mali 1992 Qualitative Studyon the Demandfor Educationin Rural Mali Mali 1993 Assessmentof LivingConditions Niger 1996 Poverty Assessment: A ResilientPeoplein a Harsh Environment There were 12 villagesin four different regions,chosen according to their levelsof demand for education, measured by average enrollment ratios. In-depth interviewswith approximately 100 people including married women, young unmarried women,the unemployed,students, street children, groups of beggars, cooperativesof the disabled, a neighborhoodpatrol, a savings group, women engagedin petty trade, and migrants. Approximately 200 people were interviewed in urban areas, plus approximately 190 villagers,either individuallyor in focus groups, from 12 villagesin three rural areas. Participant observation and interviews,open-endedconversations with a random sample. Informal interviews,openended questionnaires,participatory tools, and discussion groups. Country, Year, and Title Nigeria 1995 Participatory Poverty Assessment Sample Methods Interviewswith the poorest individuals and households within certain communities in 10 states (Akwa Ibom, Benue, Cross River, Kaduna, Kwara, Lagos, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, and Sokoto)-37 urban areas and 58 rural areas. Sample included sites in Oyo, Benne, and Osun States, selected by 14 teams of experienced Nigerian researchers with help from state and local government leaders. There were 18 local government education leaders, 540 parents, and 180 pupils sampled purposively to represent the main ecological and sociolinguistic categories in 54 schools selected from six. There were 12 areas of 12 municipalities in 9 prefectures selected according to 11 criteria (agro-ecological zone, socioeconomic level, economic potential, rural, urban, migration, effects of the war, population density, access to services, roads, and types of employment). The material in this report is based on the findings of a mission to Senegal led by the World Bank. Additional formation comes from the first household Priority Survey that was completed iln 1993. There were approximately 1,400 respondents in 25 communities (10 of which were in KwaZulu-Natal, 7 in Eastern Cape, and 4 in Northern Province). These are the poorest provinces in South Africa, excluding Gauteng and the Free State. In-depth interviews and focus group discussionscovering seven topics, surveys, field observation, case studies, and secondary review. Nigeria 1996 Poverty in the Midst of Plenty: the Challenge of Growth with Inclusion Individual and group discussions, interviews with government leaders. Social mapping, wealth-ranking, matrices, transects, Venn diagrams, impact trees, chapatti diagrams, focus group discussions, home visits, and secondary data. Senegal 1995 An Assessment of Living Conditions A household survey, desk review, and key informant interviews. Elsewhere, this study used combinations of participant observation, focus group discussions, conversational and semi-structured interviewing, literature review, and workshops. Country,Year, and Title Swaziland1997 Swaziland:Poverty Assessmentby the Poor Sample Methods There were 63 communities in four agro-ecological regions, involving more than 600 households,100 focus groups, and 100 key informants. The site selectionwas based on the ecologicalzones rather than socialformations, and actual sites were thus chosen based on the land tenure system. More than 6,000 participants in 87 villageswere chosen to be nationally representative of rural areas spread throughout the country. Fifteen households from each village were selectedfor a household surveyhouseholds that had also contributed to the national agricultural survey. The sample included individualsand households from rural communities and urban neighborhoods. The sample comprised 40 villagescovering five regions and urban neighborhoods in Lome. The poverty assessmentprepared in 1995 was based on the 1990 National Household Survey. The report was based on a desk review of 56 studies that have used participatory approaches of data collection to assesspoverty in Uganda. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews,social mapping, trend analysis, wealthranking, preferenceranking of sourcesof finance,institutional diagrams, and gender analysis. Tools included mappings, wealth-ranking,seasonal analysis, price analysis, Venn diagrams, problem identification, gender analysis, key informant interviews,household surveys,and Districtlevel workshops. Semi-structuredinterviews;issues covered include:problem hierarchies,perceivedsolutions, survival strategies, and life histories. Twenty-fourrural and 12 urban sites in nine of the most disadvantaged districts were purposively selectedin order to capture the multiple facetsof poverty in Uganda. Sixteen focus godiscussions wre held, inluding 110 respondents (67 men and 43 women-; there wr lo7 ndphitr tions),fs sions,and group isusaircobseation. An attitud S o Civil Servants was carried Out-fr a sttfied sampe of 403 onts (71 percent maleand29 pcent female). Yemen,Republic of 1999 YemenChild Development Project:Social Assessment Zambia 1994 the study sample included 12 village clusters and six districts in two Northern governorates. The villages involved are among the most geographically isolated and are severely lacking in social servicesand infrastructure. The stuywsbsdosirua Project stakeholders were asked to discusstheir problems and coping strategies, and to suggest solutions to several pertinent issues,such as health, female education, and water and sanitation. Conversationalinterviewing, focus group discussions,case studies, and participant observation. The six districtswere consideredto be moderatelypoor to poor (Akhurianand Spitak,Tashir Vardenis, Vaik,Goris, and Yerevan). Three urban and four rural sites were chosen to represent various differences around the country, includingYerevan, Gumri, SisianTown in urban zones, and Lusarpiur (Shirak Region),Darbas (SunikRegion), Lor (SunikRegion), and Shahap (Ararat Region)in rural zones. Qualitative researchinvolved 12 focus groups of users, plus open-ended interviewswith users and service providers. Within each school target groups were organizedto include 60 families, 52 children,nine ex-boarders, and various serviceproviders, institutionalstaff, and membersof the general community. There were community assessmentsin 91 communities (25 cities, 5 towns, and 61 villages)and a Social Assessment involving 140 poor or vul- Semi-structuredinterviews, focus groups, street conversations and spontaneous street meetings,and direct observation. Armenia 1996 Social Assessment Report on the Education and Health Sectors in Armenia Quantitative and qualitative research, including focus groups, open-endedinterviews, and observation. Georgia 1997 Poverty in Georgia: the Social Dimensionsof Transition the study was based on 600 households, chosen on the basis of poverty and vulnerability,in nine regions,includingvarious ecologicalzones,agricultural conditions, urban and rural settings,ethnic communities,and population groups. There were also interviewswith local officials,doctors, teachers,and other members of the community. The study was based on fewer than 100 in-depth interviews with poor families in the Aluksne district and the urban Livani region. Participants were selected across age, gender, and professional and employment experience. The study was based on semi-structured interviewswith 400 households and 20 local experts. Purposivesampling ensured that different geographic, economic, and cultural regions were included, as well as household types most likely to be poor. The study was based on 400 poor households reflectingthe urban-rural distribution of the country. There were 100 households from each of four regions; 200 were under the poverty line, the other 200 were randomly selected. The study was based on 200 poor individualsand households from six districts, selectedto include a range of ages, occupations, and household types. Latvia 1997 Report on the Qualitative Analysis Research into the Living Standards of Inhabitants in Aluksne District Latvia 1998 Listeningto the Poor: A Social Assessmentof Poverty in Latvia Surveysand interviews about the conditions facing families and surrounding areas on livelihoods,social assisrance programs, education, health, and food issues. Macedonia 1998 Qualitative Analysis of the Living Standard of the Population of the Republic of Macedonia Moldova 1997 Povertyin Moldova: the Social Dimensionsof Transition Ukraine 1996 Ethnographic Study of Povertyin Ukraine Questionnairesand semistructured interviews. The study was based on 500 poor Observationand semi-struchouseholdsselectedacross five urban tured interviews. In all regions except the Crimea 50 interviewswere conducted in the largestcity,and 50 in the villages. About 28 percent of respondentswere male and 72 percent were female 316 East Asia Country,Year, and Title Cambodia 1998 the SocialImpacts of the Creeping Crisis in Cambodia: Perceptionsof Poor Communities Sample Methods Rapid field research undertaken in April-May 1998 in Phnom Penh and the provincesof Battambang, Siem Reap, Kompong Cham, and Kandal.

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Specifically infections after surgery purchase generic doximicina online, the presence or absence and the features of pleu risy were evaluated antibiotics for sinus infection dose order doximicina with a mastercard. A veterinarian was stationed on the slaugh ter line where the postmortem inspection of viscera is usually performed antibiotic induced diarrhea treatment buy doximicina 100 mg without prescription. Corresponding author: Dr Giuseppe Marruchella do topical antibiotics for acne work order genuine doximicina line, University of Teramo, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Loc. Pleurisy evaluation on the parietal pleura:An alternative scoring method in slaughtered pigs. Discrete, bilateral pleurisy of both the diaphragmatic lobes; large, unilateral adhesion affecting the diaphragmatic lobe. Large, bilateral adhesions between both the diaphragmatic lobes on one side and the chest wall on the other. Pleurisy was scored in each area regardless of the extent of lesions in order to limit the subjectivity of the judgment. The points of both carcass halves are summed for a total score for each pig rang ing from 0 to 12 (explanatory examples are shown in Figure 2). The similarity between the 2 scoring systems appears quite evident, although based on a different refer ence scale. The linear regression Scoring pleurisy using digital images the reliability of scoring pleurisy on digital images was also evaluated. Scoring lesions on digital images proved to be quite easy and fast (around 8 pigs/min ute, including recording scores in a spread sheet). In particular, the number of healthy pigs (score 0) was almost identical, ranging between 140 to 144 of 260 pigs. The correlation among the investigators proved to be very high and statistically significant (r = 0. Finally, the agreement between the 2 veterinarians scor ing pleurisy on digital images was also very high (value = 0. The suitability of the sample size was as sessed for a generalized linear model using G* Power. The functional relationship between the variables measured with the 2 scoring methods was solved by linear regres sion analysis, whose statistical significance was evaluated by the analysis of variance; the Statistical analysis the examination of slaughtered pigs is ex tremely useful and costeffective to assess the health status of livestock, along with data collected in the herds (eg, clinical signs, nec ropsy findings, consumption of drugs, daily weight gain, and feed efficiency) or resulting from laboratory tests (eg, serological sur veys). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etio logic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disorder of pigs distributed worldwide, causing significant economic losses to the swine industry. We consider this to be widely expected, as pleu risy usually involves both pleural sheets (viscer al and parietal), with very rare exceptions being possible (eg, interlobar pleuritis). For example, the inspection of the pa rietal pleura may not be compatible with the simultaneous evaluation of other lesions (eg, pneumonia, pericarditis, parasitic hepatitis). In addition, it could be much faster than other methods if all carcasses are available at the end of the slaughter chain. Our data indi cate that scoring pleurisy on digital pictures of the chest wall is fast, relatively simple, and easily standardizable, providing results which are largely comparable with those obtained by a veterinarian at the slaughterhouse. There fore, this could be timesaving, efficient, and effective, notably streamlining the workload of the investigators. Implications · Pleurisy evaluation of parietal pleura was effective and efficient. The authors gratefully thank 314 Journal of Swine Health and Production - November and December 2019 Mr Andrea Paolini for his kind collaboration in collecting digital pictures at the slaugh terhouse. Disclaimer tions, feed, and management techniques may be specific to the research or commercial situation presented in the manuscript. References Scientific manuscripts published in the Journal of Swine Health and Production are peer reviewed. The British pig health schemes: integrated systems for largescale pig abattoir lesion monitoring. Merialdi G, Dottori M, Bonilauri P, Luppi A, Gozio S, Pozzi P, Spaggiari B, Martelli P. Survey of pleuritis and pulmonary lesions in pigs at abattoir with a focus on the extent of the condition and herd risk factors. A) Pleurisy affecting the cranial portion of the chest wall, corresponding to a score of 1. C) Pleurisy affecting both the cranial and the middle portion of the chest wall, corresponding to a total score of 3. D) Pleurisy affecting the caudal intercostal spaces, corresponding to a score of 3. E and F) the entire parietal pleura was affected by pleurisy, corresponding to a total score of 6. The points of both carcass halves are summed for a total score for each pig ranging from 0 to 12. Approximately, 50% of the pigs evaluated showed no pleural lesion and obtained a score of 0 using both scoring systems. Benchmarking of pluck lesions at slaughter as a health monitoring tool for pigs slaughtered at 170kg (heavy pigs). Compari son of four lung scoring systems for the assessment of the pathological outcomes derived from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae experimental infections. G*Power 3: a flexible statistical power analysis pro gram for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sci ences. Risk factors associated with pleuritis and cranioventral pulmonary consolidation in slaughter aged pigs. A crosssectional study of risk factors associated with pulmonary lesions in pigs at slaughter. Oral meloxicam administration at castra tion required 5 additional seconds and had no effect on average daily gain, mortality, or survivability in the preweaning period. Keywords: swine, castration, meloxicam, growth, mortality Received: December 12, 2018 Accepted: May 7, 2019 Resumen - El efecto de meloxicam oral en el comportamiento de lechones durante el periodo de predestete Un total de 5045 lechones fueron castrados y recibieron 1 de 2 tratamientos: control (C; quirъrgicamente castrados); o meloxi cam (M; quirъrgicamente castrados y meloxicam oral). La administraciуn oral de meloxicam al momento de la castraciуn requiriу de 5 segundos adicionales y no tuvo efecto en la ganancia diaria de peso, mortali dad o supervivencia en el periodo predestete. Rйsumй - Effet de meloxicam oral sur les performances des porcelets durant la pйriode de prйsevrage Un total de 5045 porcelets furent castrйs et reзurent un des deux traitements suiv ants: tйmoin (C; castrй chirurgicalement); ou meloxicam (M; castrй chirurgicalement et administration orale de meloxicam). Formal sample size calculations were not conducted; rather, the sample size was determined utilizing previous literature evaluating the effect of meloxicam on production parameters in commercial pre weaned piglets. Herd health was consistent throughout the study; the herd tested nega tive for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, and Mycoplasma, and showed no signs of swine influenza. For the entirety of the study, male piglets were housed with the sow and female littermates in a standard far rowing crate (1. At 1 day of age, piglets were tail docked, ear tattooed, and processed accord ing to farm standard operating procedures. Piglets had free access to the sow for nursing and to 1 water source throughout the study (Stainless Steel Farrowing Pan Waterer; Farmer Boy Ag). I n commercial swine production systems, surgical castration is a routine practice performed on male piglets within the first week of life. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of oral meloxicam ad ministered at the time of castration on piglet performance preweaning. Animals Male commercial crossbred piglets (n = 5045) across 783 multiparous sow Department of Animal Sciences, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Dr PairisGarcia is now with North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. Journal of Swine Health and Production - Volume 27, Number 6 317 Enrollment and treatments Piglets were enrolled in the trial the day prior to castration. Enrollment was continu ous over 11 weeks of production, with a daily target enrollment of 100 to 150 male piglets. Litters were selected across 8 far rowing rooms (72 stalls per room) based on litter age (24 days of age at enrollment), and all male piglets within the selected litters were enrolled. Piglets within a litter were blocked by weight and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, ensuring both treatments were equality represented within a litter and the average start weight of both treatments were similar. Treatments were as follows: control (C; surgically castrated without treatment); or meloxicam (M; sur gically castrated and administered 1. No positive sham treatment group was in cluded because this research was conducted on a commercial swine farm whose standard operating procedures required all male piglets be castrated. Given the individual castrating the piglets was also administering meloxicam, a saline control was not admin istered as the individual was already not blinded to the treatment groups.

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Finish and Factory Lumber Keep kiln-dried items such as exterior finish treatment uti zithromax order doximicina mastercard, siding antibiotic medicine purchase doximicina in india, and exterior millwork in a closed unheated shed xefo antibiotics generic 100 mg doximicina fast delivery. Interior trim virus protection free purchase 100 mg doximicina with amex, flooring, cabinet work, and lumber for processing into furniture should be stored in a room or closed shed where relative humidity is controlled. In addition, store kiln-dried and machined hardwood dimension or softwood cut stock under controlled humidity conditions. Dried and machined hardwood dimension or softwood lumber intended for remanufacture should also be stored under controlled humidity conditions. Under uncontrolled conditions, the ends of such stock may attain a higher moisture content than the rest of the stock. Then, when the stock is straight-line ripped or jointed before edge gluing, subsequent shrinkage will cause splitting or open glue joints at the ends of panels. The simplest way to reduce relative humidity in storage areas of all sizes is to heat the closed space to a temperature slightly higher than that of the outside air. If the heating method is used, and there is no source of moisture except that contained in the air, the equilibrium moisture content can be maintained by increasing the temperature of the storage area greater than the outside temperature by the amounts shown in Table 13­4. When a dehumidifier is used, monitor or control if needed the average temperature in the storage space. Select the proper relative humidity in Table 4­2 in Chapter 4 to give the desired average moisture content. Wood in a factory awaiting or following manufacture can become too dry if the area is heated to 21 °C (70 °F) or greater when the outdoor temperature is low. Under such circumstances, exposed ends and surfaces of boards or cut pieces will tend to dry to the low equilibrium moisture content condition, causing shrinkage and warp. In addition, an equilibrium moisture content of 4% or more below the moisture content of the core of freshly crosscut boards can cause end checking. Simple remedies are to cover piles of partially manufactured items with plastic film and lower the shop temperature during non-work hours. Protect all manufactured stock from precipitation and spray, because liquid water on a solid pile tends to be absorbed by the wood instead of evaporating. The extent to which additional control of the storage environment is required depends upon the final use of the wood and the corresponding moisture content recommendations. If moisture content is not as specified or required, stickered storage in an appropriate condition could ultimately bring the stock within the desired moisture content range. If a large degree of moisture change is required, the stock must be redried (Rietz 1978). Plywood and Structural Items It is good practice to open-pile green or partially dried lumber and timbers using stickers and protect from sunshine and precipitation by a tight roof. Framing lumber and plywood with 20% or less moisture content can be solid-piled (no stickers) in a shed that has good protection against sunshine and direct or wind-driven precipitation. However, a better practice for stock with greater than 12% moisture content is 13­14 Chapter 13 Drying and Control of Moisture Content and Dimensional Changes underestimating dimensional change, by about 5% of the true change. Many changes of moisture content in use are over the small moisture content range of 6% to 14%, where the shrinkage­moisture content relationship is linear (Chap. Therefore, a set of shrinkage coefficients based on the linear portion of the shrinkage­moisture content curve has been developed (Table 13­5). Estimating approximate changes in dimension using this simple equation utilizes these dimensional change coefficients, from Table 13­5, when moisture content remains within the range of normal use. Dimensional Changes in Wood Dry wood undergoes small changes in dimension with normal changes in relative humidity. More humid air will cause slight swelling, and drier air will cause slight shrinkage. These changes are considerably smaller than those involved with shrinkage from the green condition. Equation (13­2) can be used to approximate dimensional changes caused by shrinking and swelling by using the total shrinkage coefficient from green to oven-dry. However, the equation assumes that the shrinkage­moisture content relationship is linear. Increase in storage area temperature above outside temperature to maintain the desired wood moisture content Outside relative humidity (%) 90 80 70 60 50 Temperature differential (°C (°F)) for desired wood moisture content 6% 18. Because commercial lumber is often not perfectly flatsawn or quartersawn, this procedure will probably overestimate width shrinkage and underestimate thickness shrinkage. Note also that if both a size change and percentage moisture content are known, Equation (13­2) can be used to calculate the original moisture content. Design Factors Affecting Dimensional Change Framing Lumber in House Construction Ideally, house framing lumber should be dried to the moisture content it faces in use to minimize dimensional changes as a result of frame shrinkage. This ideal condition is difficult to achieve, but some drying and shrinkage of the frame may take place without being visible or causing serious defects after the house is completed. If, at the time the wall and ceiling finish is applied, the moisture content of the framing lumber is not more than about 5% above that which it will reach in service, there will be little or no evidence of defects caused by shrinkage of the frame. For heated houses in cold climates, joists over heated basements, studs, and ceiling joists may reach a moisture content as low as 6% to 7% (Table 13­2). The most common signs of excessive shrinkage are cracks in plastered walls, truss rise, open joints, and nail pops in dry-wall construction; distortion of door openings; uneven floors; and loosening of joints and fastenings. The extent of vertical shrinkage after the house is completed is proportional to the depth of wood used as supports in a horizontal position, such as girders, floor joists, and plates. Thoroughly consider the type of framing best suited to the whole building structure. Methods should be chosen that will minimize or balance the use of wood across the grain in vertical supports. The factors involved and details of construction are covered extensively in Wood-Frame House Construction (Sherwood and Stroh 1991). Wood Care and Installation during Construction Lumber and Trusses Although it is good housekeeping practice, lumber is often not protected from the weather at construction sites. Lumber is commonly placed on the ground in open areas near the building site as bulked and strapped packages. Place supports under such packages that elevate the packages at least 150 mm (6 in. Pile lumber that is green or nearly green on stickers under a roof for additional drying before building into the structure. The same procedure is required for lumber treated with a waterborne preservative but not fully re-dried. Prefabricated building parts, such as roof trusses, sometimes lie unprotected on the ground at the building site. Wetting of the lumber also results in swelling, and subsequent shrinkage of the framing may contribute to structural distortions. Extended storage of lumber at moisture contents greater than 20% without drying can allow decay to develop. If framing lumber has a greater moisture content when installed than that recommended in Table 13­2, shrinkage can be expected. Framing lumber, even thoroughly air-dried stock, will generally have a moisture content greater than that recommended when it is delivered to the building site. If carelessly handled in storage at the site, the lumber can take up more moisture. Builders can schedule their work so an appreciable amount of drying can take place during the early stages of construction. When the house has been framed, sheathed, and roofed, the framing is so exposed that in time it can dry to a lower moisture content than could be found in yard-dried lumber. The application of the wall and ceiling finish is delayed while wiring and plumbing are installed. If this delay is about 30 days in warm, dry weather, the framing lumber should lose enough moisture so that any additional drying in place will be minimal. In cool, damp weather, or if wet lumber is used, the period of exposure should be extended. Checking moisture content of door and window headers and floor and ceiling joists at this time with an electric moisture meter is good practice. When these members approach an average of 12% moisture content, interior finish and trim can normally be installed. Before the wall finish is applied, the frame should be examined and defects that may have developed during drying, such as warped or distorted studs, shrinkage of lintels (header) over openings, or loosened joints, should be corrected. Heavy Timber Construction In heavy timber construction, a certain amount of shrinkage is to be expected. A column that bears directly on a wood girder can result in a structure settling as a result of the perpendicular-to-grain shrinkage of the girder.

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